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The relief

Caballito. Autor: Charlie Frutos Caballito. Autor: Charlie Frutos Caballito. Autor: Charlie Frutos



Miraflores de la Sierra, Municipality nestled in the Sierra de Guadarrama, is located on the oldest materials of Madrid with more than 500 million years, the gneises

These gneiss were originally clay sediments and volcanic materials deposited in a shallow marine environment during the Cambrian and Ordovician, on the marine platform of the Gondwana continent located in the southern hemisphere, but the collision of Continents that gave rise to Pangea during the Carboniferous It lifted and folded these sediments, Deformándolos, transforming and emplazándolos thousands of kilometres above sea level. The strong erosion of the peaks, and the fracturing of the old supercontinent made it possible that, by decompression, the deepest rocks came to melt, gradually ascending as they were getting cold. Thus, the characteristic granite bodies that surround Miraflores (visible in municipalities such as Bustarviejo, Soto del Real, or La Pedriza in Manzanares el Real) were formed. The fractures generated during this whooping history acted as highways for hydrothermal and volcanic fluids, loaded into metallic elements that gave rise to mineral rich in elements with economic interest, such as copper, tungsten, Arsenic and silver, and which have been modestly exploited during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries as is the case of the mine "The Cubero."

From the Permian to the Jurassic the area was at the mercy of erosion, which practically swept the mountains, leaving a relief so smooth that facilitated the entry of the sea during the Upper Cretaceous, in the form of a shallow marine platform. These calcareous and sandy sediments can be seen on both sides of the ports of Canencia and the Morcuera, in the form of slopes, with good examples in Pinilla del Valle and Guadalix de la Sierra.

At the end of the Cretaceous begins a new stage of activation of the relief Tectonic), due to the thrust of the African Plate on the European, called Orogeny Alpina, responsible for the reliefs that we can see today, raising some blocks as the Folder Mounts (Montes Carpetanos) or the Long rope ( Cuerda Larga), and sinking others like the Lozoya Valley or the Madrid Basin.



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